New Publication – The Effects of After-School Programs on Maternal Employment

New Publication: ” The Effects of After-School Programs on Maternal Employment” by Marie Paul, and Fabian T. Dehos (RWI and University of Duisburg-Essen) is published in the Journal of Human Resources.


This paper evaluates the effects of a massive expansion of after-school programs (ASPs) on maternal employment in West Germany, where full-time employment rates are relatively low. Using an instrumental variables approach, we exploit regional and temporal variation in the provision of federal ASP expansion grants through a nationwide investment program. The results suggest that increasing ASP availability had hardly any effect on the working hours and employment probability of mothers with primary school children. We discuss the mechanisms why the reform did not enhance employment. Based on time-use data, we descriptively investigate how mothers use their additional child-free time.